During its golden years, in the second millennium B.C., Memphis extended 15 km, from Gizeh to Sakkara. Up until the time of the Roman Empire, this ancient citys former buildings had been constructed from air-dried bricks and therefore, due to this process, sadly did not survive the years. Granite and limestone were used solely for its Temples, Palaces and Statues. The frightening and dismissive gesture of the Sphinx was meant to frighten away grave robbers and guard the Necropolis, the place of the dead. Its lions body and human head symbolize courage and mental prowess.